星期四, 9月 10, 2009

☆ 武仙執 花椒棒 守庭門 __ Hercules accompanied Ophiuchus, Leo, Cancer, Hydra with his club Zanthoxylum L. 1753

•.٠˙★ •. ★ Constellation cards published in London c. 1825

Heracles/ Hercules/ Ηρακλής
希臘神話悲劇的英雄 英仙座Perseus 的曾孫 生於底比斯。 在世完成許多顯赫功業 包括12項英雄偉蹟: Labours of Hercules
Hercules 被 半人馬Nessus 用計 死於 九頭海蛇Hydra 膽之毒
昇天後 他的父親 天神宙斯 Zeus
將他置為 武仙星座 Hercules

Hercules 在北半球夏夜星空呈倒立姿勢
頭頂南方 蛇夫星座 Ophiuchus 頭上
左手擒 Cerberus 地獄三頭犬蛇頭的尾巴 (Hercules的第十二項英雄偉績); 纏繞在金蘋果枝上 (第十一項英雄偉績)。 合稱 Cerebus et Ramus。
右手執 花椒棒

(P.S.
1. Ophiuchus形象即 醫學之神Asklepios/Asclepius 他父親是太陽神阿波羅Apollo。 相傳是 醫學之父Hippocrates (ca. 460– 375 BC)之祖先。 植物有 林內 發表以 Tournefort 取名的 Asclepias Tourn. ex. L. 1753 馬利筋屬 意指此植物 民俗上醫療的用途
2. 第二項英雄偉蹟: Hydra 被消滅後 協同 宙斯妻子天后 Hera赫拉派出 阻撓 Hercules 任務的 螃蟹 由 Hera 將他們置於天上
一為全天庭長度最長的星座 Hydra長蛇星座 (蛇頭與尾端相距有90° 即1/4圓周)
一為黃道星座 Cancer巨蟹星座 當太陽於 6- 7月間於此 也最接近長蛇星座頭部

3. Hercules 首項英雄偉蹟: 擒拿 涅墨亞Nemea (今希臘 伯羅奔尼撒 Peloponnese 東北方) 的獅子 亦由原本豢養牠 欲用來置 Hercules 於死地的 Hera 置天庭 成為另一黃道星座 獅子星座Leo。 Hercules 身披的獅皮也由此來 保護他出戰刀槍不入 )

Hercules 主星 武仙星座頭部的 α 星(Alpha Herculis)
自古為中國星象 天市垣內的 帝座 代表皇帝的位置。
星名Ras Algethi 來自阿拉伯語 意思是 "跪者的頭"。 是一顆直徑太陽400倍大的紅巨星 亦是雙星

typus: Zanthoxylum americanum syn. Zanthoxylum fraxineum, Pancrace Bessa, France 1819. Link.

椒屬 Zanthoxylum Colden ex. L. 1753
屬名字義為 黃色木頭 ( 希臘文 ξανθὸν ξύλον, xanthos 黃色 在這變為 z 開頭 和 xylon 意思是 木頭 )
英文俗名 Hercules' club 因為樹幹帶硬突的刺 在這被說是 " Hercules' Club/ 大力士的棍棒 "

花椒 Zanthoxylum bungeanum
果實是重要香料 增添食物 "麻"的風味

芸香科 Rutaceae 的 花椒屬植物 自漢代 被調泥抹牆取芬芳 用於皇帝的寢宮 是此 后妃的宮殿稱 椒房

Zanthoxylum sp, ''Flora de Filipinas", 1880-1883 by Francisco Manuel Blanco
Zanthoxylum clava-herculis L. ,
Illustrated flora of the northern states and Canada by Britton & Brown.

《詩經·周頌》( ca. 11 Century BC- 6 Century BC) “ 有椒其馨 ”
荀子 ( 戰國, 331- 238 BC)《禮論》“ 椒蘭芬,以善鼻也 ”

花椒帶有香氣 另結實累累 被看作是多子的象徵 :

《詩經·唐風·椒聊》
“椒聊之實,蕃衍盈升。彼其之子,碩大無朋。椒聊且,遠條
..且。
..椒聊之實,蕃衍盈匊。彼其之子,碩大且篤。椒聊且,遠條
..且。”

屈原 ( 戰國, ca 340- 278 BC)《楚辭·九歌》“ 奠桂酒兮椒漿 ”
說花椒浸酒為 椒漿 用來祭祖 迎神送神 和 驅疫避邪

王維 ( 唐, 701- 761) 《九月九日憶山東兄弟》
獨在異鄉為異客,每逢佳節倍思親。
.....遙知兄弟登高處,遍插茱萸少一人。

花椒屬 裡的 食茱萸 Zanthoxylum ailanthoides
亦為古書常說到的植物 茱萸 之一。

Chinese painting Link here. (below) J.F.Bertuch Kinderbuch 1806

words ©2009, 2014 Jero Smith 朱

6 則留言:

Jero Smith.朱 提到...

Zanthoxylum L. Type Specimens:

•T: Zanthoxylum americanum Mill.
- The Gardeners Dictionary: . . . eighth edition no. 2. 1768.
•LT: Zanthoxylum clava-herculis L.
- Species Plantarum 1: 270. 1753. LT designated by A. Rehder, J. Arnold Arbor. 26: 72 (1945)

http://www.jstor.org/pss/1217684
http://www.tropicos.org/Name/40028189

Jero Smith.朱 提到...

*芸香科 Rutaceae 吳茱萸属 Tetradium Lour. 1790 (Evodia)
吳茱萸 Tetradium ruticarpum (A. Juss.) T. G. Hartley 1981 syn.
Evodia rutaecarpa (中國植物誌)

此科另有: 蜜茱萸属 Melicope

P.S.
1.Tetradium 單性花 Euodia 兩性花
http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1467-8748.1988.tb00277.x/abstract?systemMessage=Due+to+scheduled+maintenance+access+to+the+Wiley+Online+Library+may+be+disrupted+as+follows%3A+Saturday%2C+2+October+-+New+York+0500+EDT+to+0700+EDT%3B+London+1000+BST+to+1200+BST%3B+Singapore+1700+SGT+to+1900+SGT.

2.吳茱萸屬 和 蜜茱萸屬很相近,但是吳茱萸屬的雄蕊與花瓣數相同,而蜜茱萸屬的雄蕊為花瓣數的2倍。
------------------------

* 山茱萸科 Cornaceae 山茱萸属 Cornus
山茱萸 Cornus officinalis

此科另有:
草茱萸屬 Chamaepericlymenum
單室茱萸屬 Mastixia
------------------------

P.S. 五加科 Araliaceae 有 吳茱萸五加
Eleutherococcus evodiaefolius syn.
Acanthopanax evodiaefolius (中國植物誌)

Jerome Smith 朱 提到...

薔薇科 花楸属 Sorbus :
Mountain ash, rowan, Sorbus is unrelated to the true ash trees which belong to the genus Fraxinus.

Sorbus domestica : (True) Service Tree
Sorbus torminalis : Wild Service Tree

橄欖科( 木犀科) Fraxinus 梣屬 Fraxinus :
The tree's common English name, ash, goes back to the Old English æsc, while the generic name originated in Latin. Both words also meant "spear" in their respective languages.

Jérôme Smith Ju 朱 提到...

Taxonomy:
While distinctive as a species itself, the generic placement of these plants has differed in various botanical treatments. When the genus Cornus is taken broadly, as done here, this species is Cornus canadensis (加拿大草茱萸). However, if Cornus is treated in a narrower sense, excluding this species, it can instead be classified as Chamaepericlymenum (2010年9月29日) canadense or as Cornella canadensis.

Men:
As symbol of masculinity and warriorship, Heracles also had a number of male lovers. Plutarch, in his Eroticos, maintains that Heracles' male lovers were beyond counting. Of these, the one most closely linked to Heracles is the Theban Iolaus. According to a myth thought to be of ancient origins, Iolaus was Heracles' charioteer and squire. Heracles in the end helped Iolaus find a wife. Plutarch reports that down to his own time, male couples would go to Iolaus's tomb in Thebes to swear an oath of loyalty to the hero and to each other.
(A genus of Lycaenid butterfly has been named after him. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Iolaus_%28butterfly%29)

One of Heracles' male lovers, and one represented in ancient as well as modern art, is Hylas. Though it is of more recent vintage (dated to the 3rd century) than that with Iolaus, it had themes of mentoring in the ways of a warrior and help finding a wife in the end. However it should be noted that there is nothing whatever in Apollonius's account that suggests that Hylas was a sexual lover as opposed to a companion and servant.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Heracles



Jérôme Smith Ju 朱 提到...

Neptis hylas (Linnaeus, 1758)Common Sailer
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Neptis_hylas

Neptis sappho (Pallas, 1771)Common Glider or Pallas' Sailer
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Neptis_sappho

Neptis, from Latin, granddaughter, niece.
Nepos, from Latin, grandson, nephew.
http://books.google.com.tw/books?id=anecAQAAQBAJ&pg=PA1199&lpg=PA1199&dq=Neptis+genus+name+means&source=bl&ots=TZdwetlJzS&sig=iyj8Q7dZTxwL_bC5WuKKeEplGOg&hl=en&sa=X&ei=iwtEVIb6LYHAmwXe_YG4DA&ved=0CB0Q6AEwADgK#v=onepage&q=Neptis%20genus%20name%20means&f=false

Jérôme Smith Ju 朱 提到...


Aralia spinosa L.:
Devil's Walkingstick, Hercules' Club, Angelica-tree.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aralia_spinosa